Learning Goal: I’m working on a health & medical question and need guidance to h

Learning Goal: I’m working on a health & medical question and need guidance to help me learn.Please review the Discussion
Board grading rubric in the course Syllabus. Discussion responses
should be on topic, original, and contribute to the quality of the
Discussion by making frequent informed references to lesson materials
and Seminars. Initial Discussion responses should be around 100 words.
Responses to your classmates or instructor should be around 50 words.There is one topic to
respond to this week. Respond to the topic and provide two or more
responses to classmates that are thoughtful and advance the Discussion.(You can access this Discussion by clicking Discussion under Unit 3).Bacterial GeneticsDiscuss how bacterial and archaeal DNA
is organized, as compared to eukaryotes. Explain the application of
plasmids and restriction endonucleases in genetic engineering, with
examples.REPLY TO POST:Unit 3 Discussion Board Claire Currie postedDNA,
otherwise known as deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic information
found within cells that contains the “instructions” for cell
development and growth. Most of this genetic information referred to
previously can be found in the “Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya domains
of life… within chromsomes” (Pommerville, 2017). Chromosomes are
summarized by Pommerville as “thread-like fibers composed of DNA and
protein” (2017). In eukaryotes, the DNA is composed of linear-shaped
chromosomes, while bacteria and archaea typically have circular
chromosomes. Chromosomes in bacteria and archaea are found within the
nucleoid, instead of the nucleus like eukaryotic cells.Many bacterial and archaeal cells also contain plasmids.
Plasmids can be defined by Pommerville as “stable, nonessential DNA
molecules found outside of the nucleoid or cell nucleus” (2017). Since
the plasmid molecules are considered nonessential, they are able to be
removed from a cell without interfering with its overall function. This
piece of information is beneficial to know when it comes to genetic
engineering. “Genetic engineering
(also called recombinant DNA technology), uses microbial genetics, gene
isolation, gene manipulation, and gene expression to manipulate
genomes” (Pommerville, 2017). Therefore, plasmids – since they are
nonessential and can be removed, and/or edited (genetic flexibility) –
are a useful tool that can be used in genetic engineering. However, in
order to be able to alter plasmid structure, restriction endonucleases
also need to be utilized. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that
“act like molecular scissors to recognize and cut specific short
stretches of nucleotides in DNA” (Pommerville, 2017).An example of putting all of the above information together
can be seen in editing the bacterial species E. coli. Microbiologists
are able to take an E. coli plasmid, open the strand of DNA utilizing a
restriction endonuclease (AKA, enzyme), then insert a segment of foreign
DNA into the plasmid (Pommerville, 2017). All of this, for what?
According to Pommerville, “one of the goals of genetic engineering is to
insert a useful, foreign gene into another cell that will then produce
the protein product of that gene” (2017).Reference:Pommerville, J. (2017). Fundamentals of Microbiology (11th Edition). Jones & Bartlett Learning. Retrieved from https://purdueuniversityglobal.vitalsource.com/books/9781284146790Reply to Post: Dylan Maignan Dylan Maignan-Bacterial
and archaeal DNA are organized differently, as compared to eukaryotes.
Archaea and bacteria are often times a cell with a single circular
chromosome with DNA. Prokaryotic cells are a type of cell that doesn’t
have a nucleus or a membrane bound organelle structure. The DNA is free
floating in the cytoplasm along with ribosomes and a general plasma
membrane. On the other hand, eukaryotic cells are far more complexed
with multiple linear chromosomes and has a clearly defined nucleus as
well as multicellular organelles. Another important factor is that
eukaryotic cells have a nuclear membrane that surrounds and protects the
nucleus; where all the chromosomes are. The plasmids, double-stranded
DNA molecule that is distinct from a cell’s chromosomal DNA, are found
in both bacteria and eukaryotes. These plasmids can be modified with
genetic engineering to improve the bacteria or eukaryotes resistance to
disease and also improve growth rate and survival in other not favorable
environments. ReferencePommerville, J. (2017). Fundamentals of Microbiology (11th Edition). Jones & Bartlett Learning. https://purdueuniversityglobal.vitalsource.com/books/9781284146790 Plasmids as genetic tools and their applications in ecology and evolution. (2019, June 19). IntechOpen – Open Science Open Minds | IntechOpen. https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/66546
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